Isabella of France, born in 1295, held a prominent position in English history as the Queen consort of England and the wife of Edward II. Her remarkable story goes beyond the realm of a traditional queen consort, as she later became the Regent of England, ruling on behalf of her young son, Edward III. However, despite her initial status as a beloved queen, Isabella of France’s reputation took a severe hit, making her one of the most controversial figures among English queens.
Early Life: A Queen in the Making
As the daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre, Isabella was born into a world of royalty, destined to become a queen herself. Although France and England shared certain cultural ties, their political relations were often strained. To alleviate this tension, Pope Boniface VIII orchestrated two marriages.
The first union was between Edward I of England and Marguerite of France, while the second involved the infant Edward II marrying Isabella. The marriage between Edward I and Marguerite took place in 1299, while Edward II’s marriage to Isabella of France awaited her maturity. The wedding finally took place in 1308 at Boulogne-sur-Mer in France.
Young Queen: Beauty and Neglect
At the tender age of 12, Isabella of France was already renowned for her exquisite beauty. However, her husband, the 24-year-old Edward II, showed minimal interest in her. Upon ascending the throne, Edward’s first act was to recall his exiled favourite, Piers Gaveston, whom he cherished dearly.
From the outset, Isabella of France‘s relationship with Edward was far from harmonious. Edward held no romantic affection for her, and to make matters worse, he neglected to provide her with any financial support. Isabella of France resorted to writing a letter to her father, lamenting her impoverished state. In response, King Philip swiftly demanded that Edward fulfil his responsibilities towards his wife and potential offspring. Edward, however, made excuses to avoid his obligations.
Meanwhile, Isabella of France discovered that many of the precious jewels her father had given her as part of her dowry were now in the possession of Piers Gaveston. This revelation enraged Isabella of France, and her uncles, as well as the English barons, warned Edward that they would boycott their coronation unless Gaveston was removed from their midst. Edward promised to resolve the issue during the upcoming parliament meeting in March. Unfortunately, the situation spiralled out of control when Gaveston was put in charge of the coronation proceedings.
At the celebratory banquet, Gaveston arrogantly sat next to the king instead of Isabella and even displayed his own coat of arms alongside the king’s, surpassing Isabella’s rightful place. These insults deeply angered the barons and Isabella’s relatives, leading to the eventual drafting of a list of ordinances in 1311 that Edward had to comply with. The primary demand was the expulsion of Piers Gaveston. However, before this could be achieved, Gaveston returned to England in 1312, the same year Isabella of France gave birth to their first child.
To evade the wrath of the barons, Edward and Gaveston fled north, taking Isabella along. Yet, they left her vulnerable and unprotected in York while they escaped by ship. Surprisingly, the barons did not hold Isabella accountable for their actions, as their true grievances were directed at Gaveston. Consequently, Gaveston was captured and executed during the summer of 1312.
However, Isabella’s troubles were far from over, as Edward soon found a new favourite in Hugh le Despenser. By 1321, Isabella had become virtually imprisoned, with Edward transferring all her lands to Despenser.
Sent to France: The Spark of Rebellion
In 1325, Edward convinced Isabella to travel to France in an attempt to negotiate on his behalf over the region of Gascony. This presented a golden opportunity for Isabella to gain her freedom. She even persuaded Edward to send their son, Edward III, to join her. However, Edward soon realized his mistake and demanded their immediate return.
Ignoring his demands, Isabella remained in France, fueled by the years of mistreatment she endured in England, which had finally given her the strength to rebel against her husband. With their son, the future king of England, by her side, Edward’s influence over Isabella waned. During this period, she found an ally in Roger Mortimer, an English exile.
Another supporter who rallied to her cause was Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, Edward II’s half-brother. Numerous Englishmen residing in France also joined her faction, as they shared a deep dissatisfaction with Edward II and the Despensers.
Hainaut: Allies and Sacrifices
Despite gathering support, Isabella faced financial constraints. To bolster her cause, she and her followers journeyed to Hainaut in search of additional backing. As a result of her negotiations, she secured a marriage alliance between her son Edward and Philippa of Hainaut.
In return, Isabella relinquished any claims she may have had to the French crown. With an army consisting of Hainaut troops and English sympathizers, Isabella now possessed a formidable force. While residing in Hainaut, she and Roger Mortimer became lovers, solidifying their partnership.
Return to England: The Triumph of Rebellion
In 1326, Isabella and her army landed in Suffolk, and neither Edward II nor the Despensers could muster a sufficient counterforce. Edward II was captured, subsequently losing his throne. Isabella’s son, Edward III, was crowned the new king, with Isabella herself assuming the role of regent.
Legacy and Controversy
Despite the harsh criticism and condemnation she received, Isabella of France’s actions reshaped the course of English history. Her rebellion against Edward II, alongside Roger Mortimer, resulted in a significant shift in power and the establishment of Edward III’s reign.
However, Isabella’s story remains clouded in controversy, as her actions and alliances sparked debate and condemnation throughout the ages. When Isabella passed away, she was buried in her wedding dress, a testament to the complex and enduring legacy of a queen who defied the expectations of her time.
*Feature Image: Michaelsanders at English Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons