The Captivating Life Of Princess Alice Of The United Kingdom

We take a closer look at Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, her life, and how she shaped history.

In the annals of British royalty, the name Princess Alice of the United Kingdom often resonates with a blend of admiration and intrigue.

As the second daughter and third child of the formidable Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, Alice’s life was intricately woven into the tapestry of the British monarchy during the Victorian era.

While monarchs and heirs often dominate historical narratives, figures like Princess Alice, with their profound influence and compassionate nature, deserve equal attention.

This article delves into the captivating life of Princess Alice, shedding light on her early years, her pivotal role in the royal family, and her enduring legacy that continues to inspire many.

Who Was Princess Alice Of The United Kingdom?

Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (1843-1878) was the second daughter and third child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She was known for her compassionate nature and philanthropic efforts, particularly in healthcare. Alice later became the Grand Duchess of Hesse upon her marriage to Prince Louis of Hesse.

Through a meticulous exploration of her journey, we aim to offer readers an expertly crafted account of a princess whose life was marked by both triumphs and tragedies, and whose contributions to society went far beyond her royal title.

Early Life and Background

Queen Victoria's Daughter: Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Alice and her sister Victoria in the 1850. | Image: Roger Fenton, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Born amidst the grandeur of Buckingham Palace on 25 April 1843, Princess Alice Maud Mary was destined for a life under the watchful eyes of the British public.

As the third child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, her birth was met with mixed reactions, primarily because the public had been hoping for a prince.

Yet, from a tender age, Alice’s character shone through, setting her apart from the typical royal mould.

Childhood and Education

Growing up in the royal household, Alice was privy to the finest education available. Her father, Prince Albert, was particularly keen on ensuring that his children received a well-rounded education.

Queen Victoria's Daughter: Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Princess Alice of the United Kingdom in 1861. | Image: Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

Under his guidance, Alice was introduced to a range of subjects, from languages to the arts, and showed a particular affinity for history and literature. Her tutors often remarked on her keen intellect and her ability to grasp complex topics with ease.

Challenges Faced

Despite her royal status, Alice’s early years were not without challenges. The public’s initial disappointment over her gender cast a shadow over her early life.

However, Alice’s innate compassion and genuine connection with the public soon won their hearts. She often accompanied her mother on visits to tenants on royal estates, demonstrating an empathy that belied her young age.

These early interactions laid the foundation for her later philanthropic endeavours and her unwavering commitment to public welfare.

Princess Alice Of The United Kingdom’s Marriage and Family Life

Queen Victoria's Daughter: Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Princess Alice, Prince Louis with their children Princess Victoria and Princess Elizabeth in 1866. | Image: Unknown royal photographer, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

Princess Alice’s personal life, much like her public persona, was marked by deep emotions and significant events that shaped her legacy.

Her marriage to Prince Louis of Hesse was a union of love, but it was also shadowed by the weight of royal responsibilities and personal tragedies.

Union with Prince Louis of Hesse

In a time when royal marriages were often orchestrated for political alliances, Alice’s union with Prince Louis of Hesse was notably heartfelt. The two shared a deep bond, and their correspondence revealed a relationship built on mutual respect and affection.

They were married on 1 July 1862 in a private ceremony, a union that was, however, tinged with sorrow due to the recent passing of Alice’s beloved father, Prince Albert.

Children and Legacy

The couple was blessed with seven children, each of whom played significant roles in European royalty.

  • Victoria Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven, born Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine: Their eldest child, she became the Marchioness of Milford Haven and was the mother of Princess Alice of Greece and Denmark, herself the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
  • Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia: The couple’s second daughter, who married into Russian royalty and was later recognized as a martyr and saint in the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Princess Irene of Prussia: Their third daughter, who married Prince Henry of Prussia, linking her to the German imperial family.
  • Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse: The couple’s only son, who succeeded his father as the Grand Duke of Hesse.
  • Prince Friedrich: Known affectionately as ‘Frittie’, he was diagnosed with haemophilia and died young after a tragic fall.
  • Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia: The penultimate child, who married Nicholas II, the last Emperor of Russia.
  • Princess Marie: The youngest daughter, who also inherited haemophilia and passed away without issue.

Their lives were a blend of royal duties and personal joys, but they were not untouched by tragedy. Their youngest son, Prince Friedrich, known affectionately as ‘Frittie’, was diagnosed with haemophilia, a condition inherited from Alice’s maternal lineage. The young prince’s life was tragically cut short after a fall from a window, a loss that deeply affected Alice and left an indelible mark on her life.

Another heart-wrenching episode in Alice’s family life was the outbreak of diphtheria. The disease struck her family, and despite taking precautions, Alice contracted it after consoling her son, Ernest. Her health deteriorated rapidly, leading to her untimely death on 14 December 1878, a date that eerily mirrored the death of her father years earlier.

Queen Victoria's Daughter: Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Princess Alice and Prince Louis of Hesse in 1860. | Image: Royal Collection, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

Philanthropic Activities and Advocacy

Princess Alice’s legacy is not merely defined by her royal lineage but also by her profound impact on society.

Her deep sense of compassion and commitment to the welfare of her subjects set her apart as a pioneering figure in the realms of healthcare and women’s rights during the Victorian era.

Role in Healthcare

Princess Alice’s dedication to healthcare was evident during the tumultuous times of the Anglo-Prussian War. She tirelessly worked to improve medical facilities and was actively involved in nursing wounded soldiers.

Her efforts were not limited to the battlefield; she advocated for better healthcare standards and was instrumental in introducing improved nursing practices in the regions under her influence.

Her dedication was reminiscent of another royal, Florence Nightingale, and the two shared mutual respect for their respective contributions to healthcare.

Women’s Rights and Empowerment

In an era when women’s rights were often sidelined, Princess Alice emerged as a beacon of hope. She fervently believed in the empowerment of women and championed their rights at every opportunity.

From advocating for better education for girls to supporting initiatives that provided women with vocational training, Alice’s efforts laid the groundwork for significant advancements in women’s rights in the UK.

Her stance was not just symbolic; she actively participated in grassroots movements, ensuring that her advocacy translated into tangible change.

Tragic End and Legacy

Queen Victoria's Daughter: Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Image: Franz Backofen, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

The life of Princess Alice, while marked by noble deeds and compassionate acts, was not without its share of heartbreak.

Her untimely demise left a void in the hearts of many, but her legacy continues to inspire and resonate with generations that followed.

Battle with Diphtheria

The latter part of 1878 brought with it a shadow of despair for Princess Alice and her family. An outbreak of diphtheria, a severe bacterial infection, struck her household. Despite the precautions taken, the disease did not spare the royal family. Alice’s deep maternal instincts led her to console her ailing son, Ernest, a gesture that tragically resulted in her contracting the disease.

Her health deteriorated swiftly, and despite the best medical efforts of the time, Princess Alice succumbed to diphtheria on 14 December 1878. The date of her passing bore a poignant resemblance to the death of her father, Prince Albert, both having departed on the same day, albeit years apart.

Legacy and Remembrance

Though her life was cut short, Princess Alice’s impact on society and the monarchy was profound. Her tireless efforts in the realms of healthcare and women’s rights set the stage for significant reforms in the UK. Beyond her societal contributions, Alice is remembered for her warmth, compassion, and the deep bonds she forged with her family and subjects.

Historical accounts and biographies often highlight her role as a peacemaker within the royal household and her unwavering commitment to public welfare. Today, monuments, books, and documentaries stand testament to her enduring legacy, ensuring that the life and deeds of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom are remembered and celebrated for generations to come.


The life of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom serves as a poignant reminder of the profound impact an individual can have, transcending their royal status. Her story is not just one of a princess born into privilege, but of a compassionate soul dedicated to the betterment of society. From her early years in the grandeur of Buckingham Palace to her tireless advocacy for healthcare and women’s rights, Alice’s journey was marked by both triumphs and tragedies.

Her legacy, however, is undeniably positive. Through her deeds and commitments, she laid the groundwork for significant advancements in the UK, particularly in the realms of healthcare and women’s empowerment. Her life story offers invaluable lessons in compassion, resilience, and the pursuit of noble causes.

Queen Victoria's Daughter: Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
Princess Alice in the 1870s. | Image: Unknown authorUnknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

As we reflect on the captivating life of Princess Alice, we are reminded of the enduring power of empathy and the difference one individual can make in the lives of many.

Her legacy continues to inspire, and her story remains a testament to the timeless values of love, compassion, and dedication to the greater good.


To ensure accuracy and provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of Princess Alice’s life, the following primary and secondary sources were consulted:

  1. Packard, J. (2009). Royal Daughters: The Lives of Queen Victoria’s Children. London: HarperCollins.
  2. National Archives, UK. Royal Correspondence: Letters between Queen Victoria and Princess Alice. Kew, Richmond.
  3. Royal Collection Trust. Portraits and Artefacts related to Princess Alice. London: Buckingham Palace.
  4. British Library. Newspaper Archives: Reports on Princess Alice’s Activities. London.

These sources offer a blend of personal correspondences, historical accounts, and scholarly articles, providing a well-rounded perspective on Princess Alice’s life and contributions.

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