Queen Victoria’s Mother – Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

In the annals of European royalty, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld holds a distinguished position, not just as a princess by birth, but also as the mother of one of Britain’s most iconic monarchs, Queen Victoria. Born into the illustrious House of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld‘s life was intertwined with pivotal events and figures that shaped 19th-century European history.

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld‘s personal journey, marked by strategic alliances, familial duties, and a deep bond with her illustrious daughter, offers a captivating insight into the intricacies of royal life and diplomacy. This article delves into the life and legacy of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, tracing her journey from the courts of Coburg to the heart of the British monarchy.

Early Life and Background of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

Portrait of Queen Victoria aged four by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Portrait of Queen Victoria aged four by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823. Image: Dulwich Picture Gallery, Public Domain.

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was born on 17 August 1786 in Coburg, a picturesque town nestled in the heart of Germany. She was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf. The House of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to which she belonged, was a respected and influential German ducal house with deep-rooted connections to various European royal families.

From her earliest days, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was groomed for a life of nobility. Her upbringing was typical of European aristocracy, with a focus on languages, arts, and courtly manners. The palatial surroundings of Ehrenburg Palace in Coburg served as her childhood home, where she spent her days under the watchful eyes of governesses and tutors.

While her childhood was relatively sheltered, it was evident that Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was destined for a life that would extend beyond the confines of Coburg. Her siblings, too, played pivotal roles in European royalty. Notably, her brother Leopold would later become King of the Belgians as Leopold I, further intertwining the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld lineage with the broader tapestry of European monarchy.

As she transitioned into adulthood, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld‘s life took a turn that would set the stage for her future engagements, alliances, and her indelible mark on the British royal family.

First Marriage: Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen

Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen was the first husband of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen was the first husband of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. | Image: Royal Collection, Public domain

In a move emblematic of the strategic alliances that characterised European royalty, at the tender age of 17, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld entered into matrimony with Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen. Born on 27 September 1763, Emich Carl was a seasoned figure in European nobility, holding significant sway in the German territories. Their union, which took place in 1803, was not just a personal commitment but also a union deemed beneficial for both the House of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and the Leiningen family.

The couple set up residence in the grand Amorbach Abbey, which served as the seat of the Princes of Leiningen. Together, they welcomed two children into the world: a son, Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen, and a daughter, Princess Feodora of Leiningen. Both children would later play their own roles in the annals of European history, with Feodora sharing a particularly close bond with her half-sister, Queen Victoria.

However, marital bliss was short-lived for Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1814, Emich Carl passed away, leaving her a widow at the age of 28. This period marked a significant turning point in her life. With her newfound status as the Dowager Princess of Leiningen, Princess Victoria found herself at the helm of the Leiningen territories, overseeing its affairs and ensuring the well-being of her young children.

While some whispered of her assertive nature and dubbed her a controlling mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld‘s primary concern was the welfare and future of her children. Little did she know that her life was poised for another significant chapter, one that would intertwine her fate with the British monarchy.

The British Monarchy and Second Marriage

The early 19th century was a tumultuous time for the British monarchy. The unexpected death of Princess Charlotte of Wales in 1817, the only legitimate heir to the British throne, sent shockwaves through the nation. The monarchy faced a potential succession crisis, with no clear successor in sight.

It was during this period of uncertainty that Princess Victoria’s brother, Leopold, who had been married to the late Princess Charlotte, played a pivotal role. Recognising the need for an heir and understanding the intricacies of royal alliances, Leopold saw an opportunity to strengthen ties between the British and German royal families. He proposed a union between his widowed sister, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III.

In 1818, amidst the grandeur of Coburg, Princess Victoria and Prince Edward exchanged vows, marking her entry into the British royal fold. The union was not just of personal significance but held the promise of securing the line of succession for the British throne.

Financial constraints, however, led the newlyweds to reside in Germany initially. But with the impending birth of their child, they returned to England, keen on ensuring the child’s British lineage. On 24 May 1819, in the confines of Kensington Palace, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld gave birth to a daughter, Alexandrina Victoria. Little did the world know that this child would grow up to be one of the most influential monarchs in British history, Queen Victoria.

Tragically, the joy of birth was soon overshadowed by grief. Merely eight months after the birth of their daughter, Prince Edward passed away. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld found herself a widow for the second time, now with the added responsibility of raising the future queen of England.

Life in England and Relationship with Queen Victoria

With the untimely demise of Prince Edward, Princess Victoria faced the daunting task of raising the future monarch of Britain. The corridors of Kensington Palace, which had once echoed with the joyous laughter of a young family, now bore witness to the challenges and responsibilities that lay ahead for the Dowager Duchess of Kent.

Princess Victoria’s life in England was marked by her unwavering commitment to her daughter’s upbringing. She was determined to provide young Alexandrina Victoria with an education befitting a future queen. This involved rigorous lessons in history, languages, and the arts, as well as instilling in her the values and duties of royalty.

However, the mother-daughter relationship was not without its complexities. Rumours swirled around the court about Princess Victoria’s close association with Sir John Conroy, her comptroller and confidant. Conroy, an ambitious man, sought to establish a ‘Kensington System’ – a strict regime that aimed to make young Victoria dependent on her mother and, by extension, on him. This system isolated the young princess from other members of the royal family and sought to control her interactions and experiences.

As Queen Victoria grew older and began to assert her independence, tensions between mother and daughter became evident. The young queen’s accession to the throne in 1837 further strained their relationship, with Queen Victoria distancing herself from the influences of her childhood, particularly from the overbearing presence of Conroy.

Yet, time has a way of healing wounds. As the years progressed, the bond between Queen Victoria and her mother underwent a transformation. The birth of Queen Victoria’s own children and the challenges of monarchy brought about a reconciliation. The two women found common ground, with Princess Victoria often providing counsel and support to her daughter during trying times.

Princess Victoria’s later years were spent in relative peace, surrounded by her family. She passed away in 1861, leaving behind a legacy that was intricately woven into the fabric of British history. Her relationship with Queen Victoria, though fraught with challenges, ultimately highlighted the enduring bond between a mother and daughter, set against the backdrop of a nation’s destiny.

Legacy and Later Life

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
A photograph of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in her later years. Image: Public Domain

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld’s life was a tapestry of personal trials, strategic alliances, and profound influence on the British monarchy. As the mother of one of Britain’s most iconic rulers, her legacy is inextricably linked to the reign and achievements of Queen Victoria.

In her later years, Princess Victoria witnessed the early years of her daughter’s reign, a period marked by significant political, social, and industrial changes in Britain. The Victorian era, named after Queen Victoria, was a testament to the values, principles, and vision that Princess Victoria had instilled in her daughter. The Industrial Revolution, the expansion of the British Empire, and the establishment of constitutional monarchy principles were hallmarks of this era.

While her relationship with Queen Victoria had its challenges, the later years saw a deepening bond between the two. They shared moments of joy, such as the birth of Queen Victoria’s children, and moments of sorrow, like the death of Prince Albert. Princess Victoria became a pillar of support for her daughter, offering counsel and comfort during trying times.

Princess Victoria’s influence extended beyond the royal court. Her commitment to charitable causes, especially those related to children and women, left an indelible mark. She championed education and was a patron of several charitable institutions, reflecting her belief in empowerment through knowledge.

Her final years were spent at Frogmore House, near Windsor Castle, where she was surrounded by her family and loved ones. On 16 March 1861, Princess Victoria breathed her last, leaving behind a legacy that would be remembered for generations. She was interred at the Duchess of Kent’s Mausoleum at Frogmore, near her beloved daughter’s final resting place.

In the annals of British history, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld is remembered not just as the mother of a great queen but as a woman of resilience, vision, and enduring influence. Her life story serves as a testament to the power of determination, the importance of family, and the lasting impact one individual can have on the course of history.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What was the nature of Princess Victoria’s relationship with Sir John Conroy?
A: Princess Victoria had a close professional association with Sir John Conroy, an Irish officer in the British Army. After her husband Prince Edward’s passing, Conroy took on the role of her comptroller and became a trusted confidant. Their relationship was primarily professional, centred around Conroy managing her affairs. However, their closeness sparked much speculation and intrigue, especially given Conroy’s influential role in the ‘Kensington System’, which often put him in conflict with the young Queen Victoria.

Q: How did Princess Victoria shape Queen Victoria’s reign?
A: Princess Victoria was instrumental in the upbringing and education of Queen Victoria, ensuring she was equipped for her future role as the monarch. The values, principles, and guidance imparted by Princess Victoria had a profound influence on Queen Victoria’s approach to her reign. While they faced challenges in their relationship, especially during the early years of Queen Victoria’s rule, the foundation laid by Princess Victoria played a pivotal role in shaping the queen’s reign.

Q: What led to Princess Victoria’s marriage to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent?
A: The marriage between Princess Victoria and Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, was set against the backdrop of a looming succession crisis in the British monarchy. The untimely death of Princess Charlotte of Wales left a void in the line of succession. Recognising the urgency of the situation, Princess Victoria’s brother, Leopold, who had previously been married to Princess Charlotte, facilitated the union between his sister and Prince Edward. This strategic alliance aimed to ensure a clear line of succession to the British throne.


The life and legacy of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld have been meticulously documented in various historical records, books, and journals. The following references provide a comprehensive insight into her journey, offering readers a deeper understanding of her influence on European royalty:

  1. Hibbert, C. (2000). Queen Victoria: A Personal History. HarperCollins UK.
  1. A detailed account of Queen Victoria’s life, offering insights into her relationship with her mother, Princess Victoria.
  1. Packard, J. (1998). Victoria’s Daughters. St. Martin’s Press.
  1. This book delves into the lives of Queen Victoria’s daughters, shedding light on Princess Victoria’s influence as a grandmother.
  1. Longford, E. (1964). Victoria R.I. Harper & Row.
  1. A comprehensive biography of Queen Victoria, highlighting her early years under the guidance of Princess Victoria.
  1. Official Records of the British Monarchy.
  1. Archival documents detailing royal marriages, births, and events, offering primary sources on Princess Victoria’s life in England.

These references serve as a foundation for the information presented in this article, ensuring accuracy, credibility, and a well-rounded portrayal of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

Feature Image: Victoria, Duchess of Kent by Richard Rothwell, Public domain

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