We take a look at the rise and fall of the House of Tudor, one of Brittain’s most famous ruling families.
The Tudor period refers to a long historic period that lasted from 1485 to 1603, during which the Tudors were the family that ruled England. The story of the Tudors rise to power starts all the way back in 1461 with Owen Tudor.
The House of Tudor’s Rise to Power
Said to be overly ambitious, this young handsome man was the son of an outlaw was said to be hiding out in the hills of Wales. It was during this time that Owen Tudor managed to get employed as a servant in the household of the infant Henry VI. During this time period, the Barrons ruled the country on the young King’s behalf, but his household was run by his mother, Queen Catherine of Valois.
It was only a matter of time before the widowed Queen fell deeply in love with the young servant Owen Tudor. Now, although there is no record of the couple ever getting married, they did have five children together.
This love affair was not looked upon favourably by the court or those in power and so when Queen Catherine of Valois died in 1437, Owen Tudor was sentenced to prison.
But, when Henry VI came of age and took power over his Kingdom, he released his step-father and granted Earldom’s to his step-brothers Edmond and Jasper Tudor. Edmond Tudor became the 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor the Earl of Pembroke.
But the ambitious Owen Tudor would cement the House of Tudor rise to power even further by arranging a marriage between his son Edmond and someone from Henry VI’s family. Shortly after the marriage, Edmond Tudor died, but he left behind his 13-year-old bride Lady Margaret Beaufort pregnant.
Shortly afterwards, Lady Margaret Beaufort gave birth at Pembroke Castle to a son. He was named after the King, Henry Tudor.
Now, what we must keep in mind is that many believed that Henry VI was the legitimate Monarch. Henry of Lancaster had deposed his cousin Richard II in 1399 in order to become Henry IV. This move ensured constant unrest throughout the land as many believed that the House of Lancaster was not the rightful ruling family but it should be the House of York. This ultimately led to the wars of the roses where the House of York battled for their inheritance and birthright.
Owen Tudor was, of course, a firm supporter of the House of Lancaster and fought heroically on the battlefield to ensure their success. Unfortunately, he died for this cause in 1461, beheaded by Yorkists in Hereford Marketplace.
The Rise of The House of Tudor
Soon after, Edward of York seized the throne and became Edward IV. This ensured that Owen Tudor‘s grandson Henry Tudor and Henry VI had to live on the run for years to come as a refugee.
But as the old saying goes, love conquers all and about three years later, Edward IV fell desperately in love. A young and beautiful widow named Elizabeth Woodville would persuade the King to marry her and so he did. The court and Europe were outraged as she was “a penniless commoner”. But what really got to the nobility of England was when Edward IV started to issue titles and wealth to the Woodville family.
This “unacceptable behaviour” was so looked down on that Edward IV was eventually driven out of England 1470. This allowed for Henry VI to be reinstated as King. Only a few months later Edward IV came back to regain his crown. This once again led to an endless number of battles for many years to come.
Throughout this time, every member of the male line of the House of Lancaster was made extinct, including Henry VI, leaving the 15-year-old Henry Tudor the last surviving member.
Edward IV later died and his young son became king. But, before he was even crowned it was uncovered that this line of succession now being considered as illegitimate (Edward IV was contractually engaged making his marriage illegal), Richard III became King – the most evil King of England as he would become known.
Then, on 1 August 1485, Henry Tudor landed at Milford Haven with an army of 2 000 refugees and French soldiers. Three weeks later, his force had grown by just 3 000 men when they arrived at Bosworth for battle. Richard III was so adamant that he was the rightful heir to the throne that just before the battle he once again held a coronation ceremony to underline his legitimacy as King. But, it is said that the English crown was found under a bush following the death of Richard III, who would become the last English monarch to die on the battlefield.
After retrieving the crown from the bush, it was placed on Henry Tudor’s head after the battle. But, to help with public relations, Henry VII inscribed his date of accession to one day before the battle. This would ensure the illusion that he did not kill a king but that Richard III was fighting against the rightful King making him a traitor. This cemented Henry VII as the 1st Tudor monarch on the throne.
The Tudor Children
Henry VII calculatedly married Elizabeth of York, and their union is what helped to firmly establish the Tudors on the British throne. The marriage between Henry VII and Elizabeth of York produced 4 daughters; 2 died as infants but 2 survived to reach adulthood.
Both princesses, Margaret and Mary, became queens and their descendants played a crucial role in England’s long and successful history.
The House Of Tudor Succession
King Henry VII ruled from the day he took over the throne until he died in 1509. After his death, he was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII who ruled until he passed away in 1547. Although he is today regarded as one of Britain’s most popular figures in history, he is also remembered for marrying 6 wives.
Jane Seymour had finally given Henry VIII the son he so desperately wanted and needed. Following his death, Edward VI took over at the very young age of 9. Edward VI was a sickly young man and most of the ‘work of government’ was left to the council. Due to bad health, the young King died at the age of 15.
Through a bazar move, Lady Jane Grey, Edward VI‘s first cousin once removed was proposed as Queen, mostly due to her protestant faith. She later became known as the Nine Days’ Queen. While still awaiting her coronation, support grew for Mary Tudor as the rightful heir. After only nine days as the first Queen of England, she was placed under arrest by her father. She was imprisoned and Mary had her executed.
Mary I became known as bloody Mary following her decision to have 277 people burnt alive due to their religious beliefs and opinions. The ‘invalid Queen’ was unable to have children and became England’s most hated Monarch of all time. It was said that the news of her death sparked the greatest celebration that London had ever seen.
Succeeding Mary I was her half-sister Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen. Although many rumours have been sparked to explain why she remained unmarried the most sensible explanation is that she couldn’t marry as that would create a King that would either be a foreigner or she would have to marry an opportunist courtier creating factions. It could also be due to the terrible way in which her father had treated his wives, including killing her mother. She is believed to have said, at age 14, that she would never marry.
The Tudor Period
The Tudor Period refers to the period in which the Tudors were in power between 1485 and 1603. During that period, the Tudor dynasty saw a total of 5 monarchs.
These 5 monarchs, although often characterized by controversy, managed to rule England well allowing it to become one of the strongest and most influential monarchies in the world, politically, socially and economically.
The Story Behind The Tudor rose
Although King Henry VII ended up marrying Elizabeth of York, the royal Houses of Lancaster and York had actually been in an ongoing battle for years known as the Wars of the Roses. But after King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York got married, their marriage brought an end to the wars.
The Tudor Rose was created to symbolize this unity by merging the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster which formed what is known today as the Union Rose or the Tudor Rose. Today, the symbol of the House of Tudor, the Tudor Rose, is still used as the English floral emblem.